This dropped into the inbox this morn~ sharin gthe joy. Free subscriptions till May 2013!
We are pleased to announce the creation of Anthropology & Archaeology Research Network (AARN). It will provide a worldwide, online community for research in all areas of anthropology and archaeology, following the model of other subject matter networks within SSRN.
We expect AARN to become a comprehensive online resource for research in anthropology and archaeology, providing scholars with access to current work in their field and facilitating research and scholarship.
The following Subject Matter eJournals are available within AARN. Initially, subscriptions will be free during the start-up phase until May 2013.
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of anthropological studies of agriculture and nutrition. The topics in this eJournal include: Agriculture; Nutrition & Food; Negative Results – Anthropology of Agriculture & Nutrition.
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of anthropological studies of education. The topics in this eJournal include: Learning & Teaching; Schools; Educational Policies & Equality; Negative Results – Anthropology of Education.
ANTHROPOLOGY OF RELIGION eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Anthropology-Religion.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of anthropological studies of religion. The topics in this eJournal include: Religion & Theory; Case Studies of Religious Groups; Negative Results – Anthropology of Religion.
APPLIED & PRACTICING ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Applied-Practicing-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of applied and practicing anthropology studies, including studies that use anthropological theories and methods to address current problems, such as development, social justice and human rights, studies that are aimed at educating non-anthropologists and studies of anthropologists applying their knowledge in professional fields. The topics in this eJournal include: Theory & Method in Applied Anthropology; Topics of Concern in Applied Anthropology; Public & Practicing Anthropology; Negative Results – Applied & Practicing Anthropology.
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Archaeology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of archaeological studies. The topics in this eJournal include: Archaeology as a Field; Archaeological Methods & Methodology; Historical Archaeology; Anthropological Archaeology; Negative Results – Archaeology.
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Biological-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of biological anthropology studies. The topics in this eJournal include: Paleoanthropology; Modern Human Evolution & Variation; Primatology; Human Ecology & Behavioral Ecology; Forensic Anthropology; Negative Results – Biological Anthropology.
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Cultural-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of cultural anthropological studies. Please note that several cultural anthropology topics are indexed in separate eJournals, including applied and practicing anthropology, urban and transnational anthropology, medical anthropology, environmental anthropology, psychological anthropology, anthropology of agriculture and nutrition, anthropology of education, anthropology of religion, and culture area studies. The topics in this eJournal include: The History of Cultural Anthropology; Methods & Ethics in Cultural Anthropology; History & Ethnohistory; Race, Ethnicity, & Indigenous People; Visual Anthropology, Media Studies, & Performance; Economic Anthropology; Political Anthropology & Legal Anthropology; Kinship, Gender, the Body & Sexuality; Violence: War, Crime & Peace; Human Borders: Animals, Science & Technology, & Material Culture; Theory; Negative Results – Cultural Anthropology.
CULTURE AREA STUDIES eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Culture-Area-Studies.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of studies of specific culture areas. The topics in this eJournal include: Africa; North America; Europe; Middle East; Latin America & South America; Asia & Central Asia; East Asia; South Asia; South East Asia, Oceania, & the Pacific Region; Negative Results – Culture Area Studies.
ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Environmental-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of environmental anthropology, including all studies that address nature-culture divides, borders, and interactions. The topics in this eJournal include: Cultural Ecology & Subsistence; Space, Place, & Tourism; Political Ecology; Natural Disasters; Negative Results – Environmental Anthropology.
LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Linguistic-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of linguistic anthropology studies. The topics in this eJournal include: Linguistic Studies; Language, Culture & Power; Language Evolution & Change; Language Socialization; Negative Results – Linguistic Anthropology.
MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Medical-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of medical anthropology. The topics in this eJournal include: Health & Illness; Medicine & Ethics; Public & Global Health & Emerging Diseases; Science, Technology, & Medicine; Applied Medical Anthropology; Negative Results – Medical Anthropology.
NEGATIVE RESULTS eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Negative-Results.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of studies that have controversial, unexpected, or provocative results that challenge established theories.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Psychological-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of psychological anthropology. The topics in this eJournal include: Psychology & Culture; Cognitive Anthropology; Life Stage Studies; Psychological Disorders & Psychology in Practice; Negative Results – Psychological Anthropology.
URBAN & TRANSNATIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY eJOURNAL
View Papers: http://www.ssrn.com/link/Urban-Transnational-Anthropology.html
Description: This eJournal distributes working and accepted paper abstracts of urban and transnational anthropology, including studies of urban areas and relationships between national, international, transnational and global spheres. The topics in this eJournal include: Urban Studies; Local, National & International Milieus; Migration; Globalization & Transnationalism; Negative Results – Urban & Transnational Anthropology.
HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
You can subscribe to the eJournals by clicking on the “subscribe” link listed below each eJournal’s name. You can also subscribe to all of the eJournals at once by clicking here: http://hq.ssrn.com/jourInvite.cfm?link=AARN-all-inclusive-journal.
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Navigating practice in the field can be a challenge. Social change cannot come about without value change at the level of the individual. Learning and working within multidisciplinary contexts can become confusing. Being inclusive of a diverse ways of thinking and acting can be a juggle. Avoiding the task of building meaningful relationships within and across learning and work settings creates consumptive practices; people become a means-to-an-end and stereotypes, such as the just world hypothesis, guide personal value systems.
Social support networks that empower and enliven activity for sustainable outcomes are nourished by conflict. Positive conflict. A Critical Thinking-Heart, rather than the simplified one-sided version of being critical to find fault. For relationships to be purposeful between colleagues, student and lecturer or tutor, and later between professionals, critical thinking must take heart.
Reflective processes within oneself and as groups enables a rethinking of leadership, what it means to be a learner and where one wants to be as a professional in the social services.
Cooperation. Humility. Empathy. Getting Vulnerable.
“”…many [leaders] are trained to talk around and avoid difficult issues, not carefully confront them” (……, date, p. 1).
Feedback = Warm (supportive), cool (distanced/alternative views) and hard (challenge and extend).
Norms are in place to ensure not a rushed discussion and that the setting does not promote reactive subjective interpretations.
Whilst I find the structured process suggested quite constricting. The general principles of Critical Friends I align wit; they require a heart-mind method of navigation.
Non-critical thinking is a fallen fruit where one half sprouts destabilisation (mind only; dry) and the other half shoots a new-old (heart only; wet). Entwine the two halves and a sturdy tree of knowledge and empathy arises.
Emotional life and sociopolitical awareness…surface and depth (Tacey, 1997, p. x).
The personal is political. Change and transformation.
Reintroducing processes (rituals) where alternatives and options no longer devoured as time-consuming ‘problems’, rather as team-player tasks to be challenged cooperatively, inclusively and in a critically reflective manner.
Ask ourselves: Who are we consuming today?
Critical friends: A process built on reflection. http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/pdf_files/CriticalFriends.pdf
Tacey, D. (1997). Remaking men. Ringwood: Viking.
Concern has been expressed by some psychiatrists that Bipolar disorder is being severely under-diagnosed in patients presenting with depression. Bipolar disorder is a very common mental illness, but despite its increased profile in recent years due to the number of ‘celebrity sufferers’, it is still often overlooked by practitioners who are assessing patients with depression. It may be useful to re-acquaint yourself here with the symptoms of Bipolar disorder, so that it is in your mind when considering a patient presenting with depression.
Type I Bipolar Disorder
Type I Bipolar disorder used to be known as ‘manic depression’. This is far easier for doctors to spot because the symptoms are extreme and fairly clear-cut. The patient’s mood can change from deep depression to wild elation, and extreme, destructive behaviour. During the manic phase of the illness symptoms include grandiosity and a feeling of being all-powerful. The patient may clean out their current accounts in reckless spending sprees, or seek other extremes to sustain the (often enjoyable) high they find themselves in. Practitioners should be aware of the patient’s drug habits, however, since some forms of drug use (heavy use of cocaine and amphetamine) can mimic the symptoms of the manic phase. The picture is complicated, since as many as 80% of bipolar sufferers will be drug users, and it takes a skilled assessment to sort out the symptoms. The delusional nature of the manic phase, and the undoubted enjoyment that can accompany it for some, makes it unlikely that sufferers will ask for help during an episode. Part of this is their lack of insight into their condition, due to the delusions of powerfulness and invincibility. Their fixed false beliefs mean that they simply cannot recognise what they are doing is not normal.
Type II Bipolar Disorder
In Bipolar Type I then, symptoms are fairly clear-cut. There are manic highs, with disordered behaviour, and there are depressive lows. But Bipolar Type II is more subtle, and harder to spot. Patients usually present to their doctor in the depressive phase, often leading to a diagnosis of simple clinical depression. Depression is the most common and pervasive symptom of Bipolar Type II, and the ‘manic’ phases are less extreme in Type II Bipolar. When the depression lifts, a heightened mood is seen as a natural consequence of this, and overlooked. But the highs often include risk-taking behaviour, such as drug abuse, promiscuity or alcohol abuse, which in turn contribute to the recurrence of the depression. These mood shifts – known as ‘cycles’ – can be rapid, sometimes several in a day or a week – and this is another reason that clinicians miss the symptoms of Bipolar Type II. It would be easy to dismiss Bipolar II as a ‘milder’ version of ‘manic depression’. The opposite is in fact true. Research has shown that Bipolar II sufferers have been shown to have worse outcomes over their lifetime, and be much more at risk of suicide than Bipolar I sufferers. It is certainly not an illness to be ignored. Let’s summarise the list of symptoms here for quick reference:
Bipolar Symptoms – ‘Manic’ phase
- A heightened sense of self-importance or ‘grandiosity’
- An exaggerated positive disposition
- A decreased need for sleep, and difficulty sleeping
- Poor appetite
- Weight loss
- Racing speech, thoughts and flights of ideas
- Impulsive, risk-taking behaviour – excessive drinking, promiscuity etc
- Poor concentration and easy distractibility
- Vastly increased activity level
- Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities
- Poor financial choices and ill-advised spending sprees
- Excessive irritability
- Aggressive behavior
Bipolar Symptoms – ‘Depressive’ phase
- Deep feelings of sadness or hopelessness
- A loss of interest in pleasurable activities
- No longer interested in previous interests
- Difficulty in sleeping
- Early-morning waking
- A loss of energy; constant lethargy and low activity
- Feelings of guilt; low self-esteem
- Difficulty concentrating; memory loss
- Negative thoughts about the future
- Weight gain; weight loss
- Thinking or talking about suicide or death
This is only a basic guide to a commonly overlooked disorder, but salutary nonetheless. The nature of bipolar disorder is complex, but it is clear from research that biological factors are decisive. The drug of choice used to be lithium, but great steps forward in treatment are being made at present, with an increased emphasis on using anticonvulsant medications. Doctors noticed improvements in mood-stability in patients being treated for epilepsy and migraine. The use of drugs such as Lamictal and Depakote in treating bipolar depression have proved effective. Anticonvulsant medication calms hyperactivity in the brain and are highly effective in treating the manic phase of bipolar disorder. Anticonvulsant medication currently used to treat bipolar disorder are:
- Depakote, Depakene (divalproex sodium, valproic acid, or valproate sodium)
- Lamictal (lamotrigine)
- Topamax (topiramate)
- Trileptal (oxcarbazepine)
- Gabitril (tiagabine)
- Tegretol (carbamazepine)
According to The Bipolar Foundation, bipolar disorder affects:
‘…up to 254 million worldwide, 12 million in the US and 2.4 million people in the UK, and is a major cause of suffering and suicide. The World Health Organization has identified bipolar disorder as one of the top causes of lost years of life and health in 15-44 year olds, ranking above war, violence and schizophrenia.’
These are sobering statistics, and certainly not a picture of the ‘trendy celebrity illness’, as some some dismiss it. In the words of psychiatrist Dr Alan Ogilvie, CEO of the Foundation:
“Bipolar disorder is a much neglected and potentially lethal problem which is ignored, frequently unrecognised, poorly treated and ruins the lives of many. This is tragic when a lot already can be done to help if it is spotted early and treated”.
A Therapeutic Community is a facility where a group-therapy model is used to treat personality disorder, drug addiction, compulsive self-harm, anxiety, eating disorders and various other disordered behaviours. The difference between normal group therapy and a therapeutic community is the residential with fairly intense interaction potentially at any time of the day or night.
Therapists, who can be doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists or psychotherapists usually live in the facility with the patients, in shifts and can be called upon to attend crisis meetings whenever needed. However, residents are encouraged to lead the therapy sessions, with little input from therapists. Residents are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions by other residents, and those not conforming to the community rules can find themselves sanctioned by the group.
Therapeutic communities have been used in Great Britain since the end of the Second World War, when they were used to treat soldiers returning from the Front suffering with Shell Shock.
In fact, an Englishman called Thomas Main, who was a member of the Royal Medical Corps, coined the notion and expression ‘therapeutic community’. He went on to work for thirty years at the famous Cassel Hospital in London, which is where the model was created – a democratic, patient led community with limited sanctions available.
Maxwell Jones and R.D Laing developed his ideas, amongst others. Therapeutic communities were popular throughout the Sixties, but their use has dropped off in recent years, largely due to cost. Despite this, the improvements seen in patients’ outcomes were well established, statistically. Recidivism dropped and a majority of community members reported a drop in their psychiatric problems, and better skills in dealing with them when they occurred.
In the United States the development of therapeutic communities has developed slightly differently. They tend to favour a more hierarchical structure, and drug dependence treatment centres and prisons are the main proponents of the treatment model. Today in the United States therapeutic ‘camps’ are also favoured for troubled teenagers, which perform a similar function with an added outdoor function. Structure and rules are important in therapeutic communities and residents are happy to keep the community functioning by the application of peer group pressure.
Often the use of drugs is not allowed in therapeutic communities – not psychiatric drugs or any other medication, including pain relief. This is because of the belief that people’s minds affected their bodies, and psychosomatic symptoms are the result. Residents are encouraged to talk about their feelings when they are feeling ill. The illness they are experiencing is often seen as a metaphor for trapped emotions.
If someone is bottling up their experience of child abuse, for example, and is not able to discuss it, their throat may hurt, as they struggle to keep the experience inside. Interestingly, there is quite a lot of anecdotal evidence that this approach works, with symptoms lifting as patients begin to talk. Another approach that many students find hard to understand is the non-intervention of staff in psychiatric crises. This is because the emphasis is for patients to manage their own and other people’s symptoms, to take responsibility for the care of others and for the community.
Unless there is a danger of physical harm to an individual, it is unusual for any action to be taken by staff at all. Thus patients are called upon to restrain other patients, take them to hospital after self-harming episodes, and work suicide watch shifts throughout the night.
Other approaches to therapy are Art therapy, gardening, and local conservation work. Strict cleaning and cooking rotas are set out, and adhered to, with patients taking turns to carry out the tasks needed to keep the community running.
A major part of treatment, however, centres around group therapy, with residents encouraged to discuss their problems in depth over weeks and months, asking for opinions and ‘feedback’ from fellow residents. These meetings can be whole community meetings, or smaller group meetings. Any incidents that happen during the day are discussed fully with the community and everyone is encouraged to let residents who have been disruptive know how the incident has left them feeling.
A powerful form of peer pressure thus exists within the community, and those who transgress – either in violence, self-harm or suicide attempts, are faced with the consequences of their actions on their peers.
In the UK the larger institutions, such as the famous Henderson Hospital in Sutton, have now been closed due to budgetary restraints. The model still exists but it is now atomised and seldom full time residential. Therapy is undertaken several times a week in smaller communities. More support is moving ‘online’, which extends the reach of the therapy, but is a pale imitation of the pioneering inpatient model. The North Cumbria model is one example of this practice.
In the USA, therapeutic community models were introduced to prison populations in the 1960s, most notably by the Asklepion Foundation. They used transactional analysis, the twelve step program, and other models to reduce re-offending, with some success. This was taken forward by the Virginia Correctional system, for example, right up until the 1980s. Other types of therapeutic community still exist in the United States, with many of the tenets used in prisons to treat alcohol and substance abuse.
Useful Links & Further Reading
World Federation of Therapeutic Communities : http://www.wftc.org/mission.html
Association of Therapeutic Communities: http://www.therapeuticcommunities.org/
Treatment Communities of America: http://www.therapeuticcommunitiesofamerica.org/main/
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Rueckert, L.; Naybar, N.
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- The effects of stress and stress hormones on human cognition: Implications for the field of brain and cognition • Article
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Last night a student asked for some exam prep tips for her upcoming psych subject. She has a lot on her plate, like most of us, so feeling pushed for time to put into place quality study time. This morning I received a positive charged-up email in which the student expressed her thanks for the practical and interesting tips n trix for exam prep that I provided.
So now, to share them with you ~:-)
- Pre-test: Complete review questions in one section of your textbook/Create questions from text summaries and test yourself (you need to write these questions down).
- Make a flashcard glossay and use pictures (get imaginative) for stuff that is hard to remember. Drop them around the house~ under the milk, on the mirror andput a bunch in your handbag for when you are waiting for something or someone.
- Google keywords of theories and models and look for quizzes
- Write questions for your classmates and email or SMS them.
- Write a reflective essay about questions, concepts or glossary that is challenging and why you think that is so. Rinse and repeat for questions/concepts that you find easier to understand. Be sure to include examples of the questions/concepts from your own life/news/books and music
- Post-test: Do those questions again from your pre-test. How did you go this time? Where are your gaps in 1) knowledge and 2) understanding (yes, they are different, you may remember something, but can you apply that knowledge by using it in an example?)
- Have a brunch/dinner date with classmates and discuss your insights, questions, challenging points.
- The night before the exam watch a comedy and chillax, sleep!
- No peeking at stuff before the exam (your head will be too full trying to ‘memorise’ and you will get in your own way). Relax and trust your brain to link material.
- Use the prep time, if any, to write notes then pace yourself. When stuck, write about how something is not something else (yes, you do pick up points this way ~:-)
Let me know how these work out for you. Share your exam-prep tips n trix!
I met Char when I was studying my 5th university degree whilst concurrently enrolled in my PhD.
Char and I worked collaboratively on an assignment together and she provided guidance and knowledge in structure, content, and overall completion that exceeded my expectations.
She was able to draw out of me (a seasoned student) more than I thought was possible academically. I would recommend her services to any person (even those experienced students) to develop and extend your academic skills.
~ M.C., USQ, Toowoomba Campus, 2012
More later ~:-)