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Probability that I Will Learn Probability this Semester…High

As per usual, each semester brings a slew of students whose statistics subject includes probability. Guess which psych n stats tutor did not do a course in Probability~ yes, moi.

So…every semester I tell myself, “I will learn probability these next few months…”.
And I don’t ~:-) and somehow myself and the student muddle through superbly (Testimonials coming).

Anyways, I have the time + inclination this time around. And also as per usual, I am sharing here the academic journey.

The Multiplication Rule

A method for finding the probability that both of two events occur”.

Multiplication Method on video.

Multiplication Rule worksheets.

Multiplication Rules lecture slides:


Have you Taken the International Curriculum and Training Survey?


“Dear Student,

We are researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara conducting a study about Applied Psychology graduate student attitudes about and motivation for international training.

We are requesting your participation in this research study, which will involve completing an anonymous online survey. To participate, you must 1) be over 18 years old, and 2) be enrolled in an applied psychology doctoral program. The survey will take approximately 15-20 minutes to complete. Your participation is completely voluntary. If you choose not to participate or to withdraw from the study at any time, there will be no penalty.

There are minimal risks to participation, and the study has been approved by the IRB of the University of California, Santa Barbara.

If you would like to participate in this study, please click on the link included in this email.

Linking to the survey indicates that you agree to participate in this study. Please review the letter of consent included below, which outlines the parameters of this research. This email has highlighted the main aspects of the letter.

If you have any questions concerning this research study, please email:

Thank you for your consideration,

Emily Unzueta, MA

If you have trouble viewing or submitting this form, you can fill it out in Google Forms”.


Does APA Style Serve a Purpose?

Learning and using the APA style manual can be tedious!

As an undergrad I was introduced to the 5th edition during my psych degree; I took it on a weekend away to a nearby island and we got to know each other.

APA formatting
APA Style Manual, 6th ed.


I realised that:

standardised rules for expressing Academic Voice –>

……………………………………..  effective Communication with a Reader  


A street view of APA formatting is a set of signals and indications of  Another as “one of the In-Group”. One can Name the Names.

APA formatting metaphor
Cairns Graffiti via /cairnsgraffiti/ (fb)

A critical thinking perspective of APA rules for writing, is that they; train for attention to detail; identification of patterns; and linking of empirical studies.

researcher APA style manual
Photo compliments of Density Design (Flikr)

Use of a formatting style, such as APA, makes it easy for a Reader to scan and determine if your argument well structured, comprehensive and sound.

Recommended APA Style Resource

 I now visit regularly a great statistics blog that also offers weekly APA tips. Very practical and helpful!

Over at the Statistical Consulting blog, the APA Fact of the Week is Nouns before #s


Use numerals for all numbers “that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or numbers” (APA, 2009, p. 115). Write Grade 6 (but sixth grade); Trial 5; Table 6; page 71 (do not cap page); chapter 8 (do not cap chapter); 2, 4, 6, and 8 words in a series”.

~ engrade


Want to Host a Psych n Stats Salon? (Fancy name for a Party)

Gather a study-buddy bunch and host an after hours Psych n Stats Salon at your home!

The host receives a complimentary one hour face to face tutor session (valued of $35 and 30% discount off future tutorials).

Salons are online in n your home, backyard or local cafe (or pub ~:-) for Cairns locals, or via Skype (psi_tutor) or WizIQ for cyber colleagues.

salon 2

A Party can be as short as 45 minutes or as long as half a day (4.5 hours). Recommended for a high tea evening with wine and cheese, the Psych n Stats Party is also suited to a day in the lounge, at the park or in the yard round a bbq.

Bring together classmates and share food and in-depth topic of choice conversations. Demonstrations and activities ar e options, as well as journal critique discussions or lecture and class tutorial reviews. Homework or exam prep are also possible through the flexibility of a Psych n Stat Party.

$15 pher head 5 or more
$18 phead 3-5 people
$20 phead for two

Book with Char m: 0449 252 438 or e:


Ways to Review Pharmacokinetic (PK) Principles

And we are off! A pharmacology student has an upcoming exam, so we all get to benefit from some revision and new learnings.


Pharmacokinetics = Action of body on drug

Pharmacodynamics = Action of drug on body

Kinetic homogeneity principle: “The predictable relationship between plasma drug concentration and concentration at the receptor site where a given drug produces its therapeutic effect”

Clinical PK Intro Definitions


Pharmacokinetics Flashcard Quiz


Volume of Distribution

Pharmacokinetics quiz 1

Pharmacokinetics quiz 2

Pharmacokinetics quiz 3

Supplementary Material for Drug Disposition and Pharmacokinetics (Curry & Whelpton, 2006)


Pharmacokinetics Exam Questions

Pharmacokinetics Exam Answers



What’s the Point of Statistics in the Social Sciences?

The use of statistics is of benefit to professional roles in psychology, social work, management, environmental sciences, human resources, education, finance, data mining and nursing and allied health disciplines.

“You may think that statistics would be relatively useless in law — and criminal law, in particular — but you’d be surprised. The logic of statistics is useful in developing legal arguments, and the methods of statistics are often directly applicable to data pertinent to a case” ~ Carlton F. Gunn, Attorney

The Case for Undergraduate Statistics

Why Study Statistics?


Statistics at Australian Universities


Statistics: What is the hottest skill to get you hired…?



How Can Social Anxiety Express in Adults?

Apparently a large proportion of first nation populations are experiencing social anxiety as adults.

Compromised daily functioning affects the individual, their family and the wider community and environment.

brain regions

Several forms of anxiety ‘disorder’ exist, according to the DSM-V (APA, 2013).

Personal narratives
detailing the lived experience of social anxiety, can be as informative as published empirical studies:

“In the regulation of behavior, the role of GABA neurons has been extensively studied in the circuit of fear, where GABA interneurons play key parts in the acquisition, storage and extinction of fear”
(Mohler, 2012).

“…particularly molecules and processes that may pre-determine vulnerability or resilience, and those that may act to switch off or “unlearn” a response to an aversive event. The glutamate system is an interesting target in this respect, especially given the impact anxiety disorders have on neuroplasticity, cognition and affective function” (Harvey & Shahid, 2012).

“We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT…The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress…

CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in seven of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments…However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies” (Hofman, Asnaani, Imke, Vonk, Sawyer, & Fang, 2012).


How to Take a Phenomenological Research Approach

Qualitative research can deepen your understanding of a phenomena.

The lived experience can be expressed in narrative, through structured interview, categorising and rating, or as part of a focus group.

As well, phenomenological methods provide personal interpretations of an experience. Interpretations highlight important moments and identify gaps in knowledge to meet the needs and expectations of a population.

Following are a selection of research resources to help determine if phenomenological is the approach for your study. And ways to go about implementing such a design to answer your research questions.

Phenomenological Research Guidelines

A Phenomenological Research Design Illustrated


Land the Abstract for Your Lab Report

The Abstract is a critical piece of writing for the social science student.

APA 6th formatting style is the norm for psychology students. I’ve gathered here a few writing resources that focus on your creating a high quality Abstract for your paper.

Concrete Tips for Writing Abstracts doesn’t use APA formatting, however, Robyn does breakdown the content that needs to be included.



abstract owl


Student Testimonial from WA

I am currently studying Bach Psych online at university, something I thought I could never achieve.

Going into University, I was very nervous and anxious about my decision. I needed help so I contacted Char who has now been my tutor for one year.

Char is flexible, encouraging and highly intelligent. She can explain and teach me to understand all aspects of Uni and Psychology in ways that work best for me.

I fell that I fully grasp all concepts. Without Char there is no way I could achieve Distinction’s in all my results, exams and essays at University.

Thank Char, LEGEND!!!!!

~ E.T., WA

thanks photo thanks_glitter_graphic_07.gif


Strong Communities: How to approach PTSD involving violence

Critical thinking requires different filters to view information; such as sympotomology using an ecological approach.

Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) manifests in images, emotions, behaviour and decisions of an individual across social contexts and environmental settings.

So…a personal experience of PTSD ripples throughout the community.


The Psychology Lab Report: What are strategies for descriptives?

As a psych n stats tutor I read many a lab report.

Following are some resources I gathered this evening, that aim to help you to enrich your critical writing and descriptive skills when writing a psychology lab report.

Note in the first video that APA 5th formatting style is used. Currently APA 6th is the required.

Also, I disagree with Stewart’s advice to students to not be explicit about random/non-random sampling used. How do you and I know, that you actually understand what you are saying by random, if you do not state it (with citation and date).

How to Format a Lab Report (Tables)
Note that the Chemistry Lecturer does not align with APA 6th criteria. So, use the tips and tricks for creating Tables to align with APA expectations.

Lab Writing Tips is great as it provides sets of questions to be answered, and so each section of the lab report gets written. Then all you need do is flesh it out with evidence for examples etc.

Again, remember that APA 6th formatting style is what is expected of you as a student of psychology.

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